Clinical Studies on Safety of Nitrous Oxide

No.17 Luhmann Kennedy Nitrous Study

Continuous-flow delivery of nitrous oxide and oxygen: A safe and cost-effective technique for inhalation analgesia and sedation of pediatric patients.1

Nitrous Oxide (N20) safely and rapidly alleviates the pain and distress of minor procedures in the emergency department (ED). We have found self-administration in children does not consistently achieve acceptable analgesia and sedation.

Level of Sedation with Nitrous Oxide for Pediatric Medical Procedures

Level of Sedation with Nitrous Oxide for Pediatric Medical Procedures2

Nitrous oxide (N2O) delivered at a concentration <50% is accepted as a minimal sedation drug by both the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The expected level of sedation at an N2O concentration >50% is less clear.

Safety of High-Concentration Nitrous Oxide by Nasal Mask for Pediatric Procedural Sedation

Safety of High-Concentration Nitrous Oxide by Nasal Mask for Pediatric Procedural Sedation3

Nitrous oxide is an effective sedative/analgesic for mildly to moderately painful pediatric procedures. This study evaluated the safety of nitrous oxide administered at high concentration (up to 70%) for procedural sedation.

Nitrous Oxide Reference List

Nitrous Oxide Reference List4

Nitrous oxide for pediatric medical procedural sedation

Case-Series of Nurse-Administered Nitrous Oxide for Urinary Catheterization in Children

Case-Series of Nurse-Administered Nitrous Oxide for Urinary Catheterization in Children5

Children undergoing urologic imaging studies requiring urethral catheterization experience considerable discomfort and psychological distress. Nitrous oxide sedation may mitigate these detriments but the requirement for physician administration has limited the applicability of this technique.

Nurse-Driven Initiative Provides a more Realxed Experience for Patients and Families

Nurse-Driven Initiative Provides a more Realxed Experience for Patients and Families6

When trying to effect change in healthcare quality, whether on one unit or throughout an organization, it all starts with a culture conducive to transformation. It also helps if your nurse manager is a supportive proponent of evidence-based practice.

Nitrous oxide inhalation is a safe and effective way to facilitate procedures in paediatric outpatient departments

Nitrous oxide inhalation is a safe and effective way to facilitate procedures in paediatric outpatient departments7

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nitrous oxide treatment given to children presenting procedural problems in a paediatric outpatient department.

Nitrous oxide–oxygen or oral midazolam for pediatric outpatient sedation

Nitrous oxide–oxygen or oral midazolam for pediatric outpatient sedation8

A total of 1112 pediatric outpatient sedations, by either nitrous oxide–oxygen inhalation (N2O) or oral midazolam, administered over a 10-year period were reviewed. Patient responses and outcomes were evaluated to ascertain the safety of these sedation techniques.

Nitrous oxide–oxygen or oral midazolam for pediatric outpatient sedation

Practical Guidelines for Sedation and Analgesia by non-Anesthesiologists9

Anesthesiologists possess specific expertise in the pharmacology, physiology, and clinical management of patients receiving sedation and analgesia. For this reason, they are frequently called upon to participate in the development of institutional policies and procedures for sedation and analgesia for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

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  1. Luhmann JD, Kennedy RM, Jaffe DM, McAllister JD. Continuous-flow delivery of nitrous oxide and oxygen: a safe and cost-effective technique for inhalation analgesia and sedation of pediatric patients. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1999 Dec;15(6):388-92. doi: 10.1097/00006565-199912000-00004. PMID: 10608322.
  2. Zier JL, Tarrago R, Liu M. Level of sedation with nitrous oxide for pediatric medical procedures. Anesth Analg. 2010 May 1;110(5):1399-405. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181d539cf. Epub 2010 Mar 17. PMID: 20237043.
  3. Zier JL, Liu M. Safety of high-concentration nitrous oxide by nasal mask for pediatric procedural sedation: experience with 7802 cases. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Dec;27(12):1107-12. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31823aff6d. PMID: 22134227.
  4. Zier Group, Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Reference List, October 2012
  5. Zier JL, Drake GJ, McCormick PC, Clinch KM, Cornfield DN. Case-series of nurse-administered nitrous oxide for urinary catheterization in children. Anesth Analg. 2007 Apr;104(4):876-9. doi: 10.1213/01.ane.0000258763.17768.ce. PMID: 17377099.
  6. Advances For Nurses, Barbara Mercer, September 12, 2013
  7. Ekbom K, Jakobsson J, Marcus C. Nitrous oxide inhalation is a safe and effective way to facilitate procedures in paediatric outpatient departments. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Oct;90(10):1073-6. doi: 10.1136/adc.2004.060319. PMID: 16177164; PMCID: PMC1720114.
  8. Hulland SA, Freilich MM, Sàndor GK. Nitrous oxide-oxygen or oral midazolam for pediatric outpatient sedation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002 Jun;93(6):643-6. doi: 10.1067/moe.2002.124763. PMID: 12142869.
  9. Anesthesiology 96: 1004-1017, 2002. © 2002 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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